Elitmus question paper(reading comprehension)

Monday, 20 August 2012

Elitmus question paper(reading comprehension)

In elitmus test you will be getting 3 reading comprehension and 5 question based on each of them.you have to choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Our propensity to look out for regularities, and to impose laws upon nature, leads to the psychological phenomenon of dogmatic thinking or, more generally, dogmatic behaviour: we expect regularities everywhere and attempt to find them even where there are none; events which do not yield to these attempts we are inclined to treat as a kind of ‘background noise‘; and we stick to our expectations even when they are inadequate and we ought to accept defeat. This dogmatism is to some extent necessary. It is demanded by a situation which can only be dealt with by forcing our conjectures upon the world. Moreover, this dogmatism allows us to approach a good theory in stages, by way of approximations: if we accept defeat too easily, we may prevent ourselves from finding that we were very nearly right. It is clear that this dogmatic attitude, which makes us stick to our first impressions, is indicative of a strong belief; while a critical attitude, which is ready to modify its tenets, which admits doubt and demands tests, is indicative of a weaker belief. Now according to Hume‘s theory, and to the popular theory, the strength of a belief should be a product of repetition; thus it should always grow with experience, and always be greater in less primitive persons. But dogmatic thinking, an uncontrolled wish to impose regularities, a manifest pleasure in rites and in repetition as such, is characteristic of primitives and children; and increasing experience and maturity sometimes create an attitude of caution and criticism rather than of dogmatism.
My logical criticism of Hume‘s psychological theory, and the considerations connected with it, may seem a little removed from the field of the philosophy of science. But the distinction between dogmatic and critical thinking, or the dogmatic and the critical attitude, brings us right back to our central problem. For the dogmatic attitude is clearly related to the tendency to verify our laws and schemata by seeking to apply them and to confirm them, even to the point of neglecting refutations, whereas the critical attitude is one of readiness to change them - to test them; to refute them; to falsify them, if possible. This suggests that we may identify the critical attitude with the scientific attitude, and the dogmatic attitude with the one which we have described as pseudo-scientific. It further suggests that genetically speaking the pseudo-scientific attitude is more primitive than, and prior to, the scientific attitude: that it is a pre-scientific attitude. And this primitivity or priority also has its logical aspect. For the critical attitude is not so much opposed to the dogmatic attitude as super-imposed upon it: criticism must be directed against existing and influential beliefs in need of critical revision oe in other words, dogmatic beliefs. A critical attitude needs for its raw material, as it were, theories or beliefs which are held more or less dogmatically. Thus, science must begin with myths, and with the criticism of myths; neither with the collection of observations, nor with the invention of experiments, but with the critical discussion of myths, and of magical techniques and practices. The scientific tradition is distinguished from the pre-scientific tradition in having two layers. Like the latter, it passes on its theories; but it also passes on a critical attitude towards them. The theories are passed on, not as dogmas, but rather with the challenge to discuss them and improve upon them. The critical attitude, the tradition of free discussion of theories with the aim of discovering their weak spots so that they may be improved upon, is the attitude of reasonableness, of rationality. From the point of view here developed, all laws, all theories, remain essentially tentative, or conjectural, or hypothetical, even when we feel unable to doubt them any longer. Before a theory has been refuted we can never know in what way it may have to be modified.


Q1. In the context of science, according to the passage, the interaction of dogmatic beliefs and critical attitude can be best described as:
(1) A duel between two warriors in which one has to die.
(2) The effect of a chisel on a marble stone while making a sculpture.
(3) The feedstock (natural gas) in fertilizer industry being transformed into fertilizers.
(4) A predator killing its prey.
(5) The effect of fertilizers on a sapling.
Ans.2


Q2. According to the passage, the role of a dogmatic attitude or dogmatic behaviour in he development of science is
(1) critical and important, as, without it, initial hypotheses or conjectures can never be made.
(2) positive, as conjectures arising out of our dogmatic attitude become science.
(3) negative, as it leads to pseudo-science.
(4) neutral, as the development of science is essentially because of our critical attitude.
(5) inferior to critical attitude, as a critical attitude leads to the attitude of reasonableness and rationality.
Ans.1


Q3. Dogmatic behaviour, in this passage, has been associated with primitives and children. Which of the following best describes the reason why the author compares primitives with children?
(1) Primitives are people who are not educated, and hence can be compared with children, who have not yet been through school.
(2) Primitives are people who, though not modern, are as innocent as children.
(3) Primitives are people without a critical attitude, just as children are.
(4) Primitives are people in the early stages of human evolution; similarly, children are in the early stages of their lives.
(5) Primitives are people who are not civilized enough, just as children are not.
Ans.4


Q4. Which of the following statements best supports the argument in the passage that a critical attitude leads to a weaker belief than a dogmatic attitude does?
(1) A critical attitude implies endless questioning, and, therefore, it cannot lead to strong beliefs.
(2) A critical attitude, by definition, is centred on an analysis of anomalies and “noise”.
(3) A critical attitude leads to questioning everything, and in the process generates “noise” without any conviction.
(4) A critical attitude is antithetical to conviction, which is required for strong beliefs.
(5) A critical attitude leads to questioning and to tentative hypotheses.
Ans.5


Q5. According to the passage, which of the following statements best describes the difference between science and pseudo-science?
(1) Scientific theories or hypothesis are tentatively true whereas pseudo-sciences are always true.
(2) Scientific laws and theories are permanent and immutable whereas pseudo-sciences are contingent on the prevalent mode of thinking in a society.
(3) Science always allows the possibility of rejecting a theory or hypothesis, whereas pseudo-sciences seek to validate their ideas or theories.
(4) Science focuses on anomalies and exceptions so that fundamental truths can be uncovered, whereas pseudo-sciences focus mainly on general truths.
(5) Science progresses by collection of observations or by experimentation, whereas pseudo-sciences do not worry about observations and experiments.
Ans.3

elitmus sample paper(Reading Comprehension)

elitmus Sample paper


Elitmus sample reading comprehension question

In elitmus test you will be getting 3 reading comprehension and 5 question based on each of them.you have to choose the most appropriate answer to each question

My aim is to present a conception of justice which generalizes and carries to a higher level of abstraction the familiar theory of the social contract. In order to do this we are not to think of the original contract as one to enter a particular society or to set up a particular form of government. Rather, the idea is that the principles of justice for the basic structure of society are the object of the original agreement. They are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality. These principles are to regulate all further agreements; they specify the kinds of social cooperation that can be entered into and the forms of government that can be established. This way of regarding the principles of justice, I shall call justice as fairness. Thus, we are to imagine that those who engage in social cooperation choose together, in one joint act, the principles which are to assign basic rights and duties and to determine the division of social benefits. Just as each person must decide by rational reflection what constitute his good, that is, the system of ends which it is rational for him to pursue, so a group of persons must decide once and for all what is to count among them as just and unjust. The choice which rational men would make in this hypothetical situation of equal liberty determines the principles of justice. In ‘justice as fairness’, the original position is not an actual historical state of affairs. It is understood as a purely hypothetical situation characterized so as to lead to a certain conception of justice. Among the essential features of this situation is that no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities. The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance. This ensures that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances. Since all are similarly situated and no one is able to design principles to favor his particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain.
Justice as fairness begins with one of the most general of all choices which persons might make together, namely, with the choice of the first principles of a conception of justice which is to regulate all subsequent criticism and reform of institutions. Then, having chosen a conception of justice, we can suppose that they are to choose a constitution and a legislature to enact laws, and so on, all in accordance with the principles of justice initially agreed upon. Our social situation is just if it is such that by this sequence of hypothetical agreements we would have contracted into the general system of rules which defines it. Moreover, assuming that the original position does determine a set of principles, it will then be true that whenever social institutions satisfy these principles, those engaged in them can say to one another that they are cooperating on terms to which they would agree if they were free and equal persons whose relation with respect to one another were fair. They could all view their arrangements as meeting the stipulations which they would acknowledge in an initial situation that embodies widely accepted and reasonable constraints on the choice of principles. The general recognition of this fact would provide the basis for a public acceptance of the corresponding principles of justice. No society can,of course, be a scheme of cooperation which men enter voluntarily in a literal sense; each person finds himself placed at birth in some particular position in some particular society, and the nature of this position materially affects his life prospects. Yet a society satisfying the principles of justice as fairness comes as close as a society can to being a voluntary scheme, for it meets the principles which free and equal persons would assent to under circumstances that are fair.


Q1
. A just society, as conceptualized in the passage, can be best described as:
(1) A Utopia in which everyone is equal and no one enjoys any privilege based on their existing positions and powers.
(2) A hypothetical society in which people agree upon principles of justice which are fair.
(3) A society in which principles of justice are not based on the existing positions and powers of the individuals.
(4) A society in which principles of justice are fair to all.
(5) A hypothetical society in which principles of justice are not based on the existing positions and powers of the individuals.
Ans.3


Q2. The original agreement or original position in the passage has been used by the author as:
(1) A hypothetical situation conceived to derive principles of justice which are not influenced by position, status and condition of individuals in the society.
(2) A hypothetical situation in which every individual is equal and no individual enjoys any privilege based on the existing positions and powers.
(3) A hypothetical situation to ensure fairness of agreements among individuals in society.
(4) An imagined situation in which principles of justice would have to be fair.
(5) An imagined situation in which fairness is the objective of the principles of justice to ensure that no individual enjoys any privilege based on the existing positions and powers.
Ans.1


Q3. Which of the following best illustrates the situation that is equivalent to choosing "the principles of justice" behind a "veil of ignorance"?
(1) The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck, but have some possibility of returning.
(2) The principles of justice are chosen by a group of school children whose capabilities are yet to develop.
(3) The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck and have no possibility of returning.
(4) The principles of justice are chosen assuming that such principles will govern the lives of the rule makers only in their next birth if the rule makers agree that they will be born again.
(5) The principles of justice are chosen by potential immigrants who are unaware of the resources necessary to succeed in a foreign country.
Ans.4



Q4. Why, according to the passage, do principles of justice need to be based on an original agreement?
(1) Social institutions and laws can be considered fair only if they conform to principles of justice.
(2) Social institutions and laws can be fair only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon.
(3) Social institutions and laws need to be fair in order to be just.
(4) Social institutions and laws evolve fairly only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon.
(5) Social institutions and laws conform to the principles of justice as initially agreed upon.
Ans.2


Q5. Which of the following situations best represents the idea of justice as fairness, as argued in the passage?
(1) All individuals are paid equally for the work they do.
(2) Everyone is assigned some work for his or her livelihood.
(3) All acts of theft are penalized equally.
(4) All children are provided free education in similar schools.
(5) All individuals are provided a fixed sum of money to take care of their health.
Ans.2

sample paper elitmus(Reading Comprehension)

Sample paper elitmus


Elitmus sample reading comprehension question

elitmus Sample paper

In elitmus test you will be getting 3 reading comprehension and 5 question based on each of them.you have to choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe‘s parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the crimes of totalitarian communist regimes,“ linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still legal and active in some countries.“Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign - including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-thirds majority. Mr. Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months. He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev‘s denunciation of Josef Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr. Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many “and a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive.“ Perhaps the real problem for Mr. Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough - and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives oe in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr. Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those killed by communist regimes (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures,communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination. It would be easier to take the Council of Europe‘s condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism oe which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin‘s time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentrationslager were both first used by the German colonial regime in south-west Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party. Around 10 million Congolesedied as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century; tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teacher to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today‘s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order - and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubts about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.


Q1. Among all the apprehensions that Mr. Goran Lindblad expresses against communism, which one gets admitted, although indirectly, by the author?
(1) There is nostalgia for communist ideology even if communism has been abandoned by most European nations.
(2) Notions of social justice inherent in communist ideology appeal to critics of existing systems.
(3) Communist regimes were totalitarian and marked by brutalities and large scale violence.
(4) The existing economic order is wrongly viewed as imperialistic by proponents of communism.
(5) Communist ideology is faulted because communist regimes resulted in economic failures.
Ans.3

Q2. What, according to the author, is the real reason for a renewed attack against communism?
(1) Disguising the unintended consequences of the current economic order such as social injustice and environmental crisis.
(2) Idealising the existing ideology of global capitalism.
(3) Making communism a generic representative of all historical atrocities, especially those perpetrated by the European imperialists.
(4) Communism still survives, in bits and pieces, in the minds and hearts of people.
(5) Renewal of some communist regimes has led to the apprehension that communist nations might overtake the capitalists.
Ans.2

Q3. The author cites examples of atrocities perpetrated by European colonial regimes in order to
(1) compare the atrocities committed by colonial regimes with those of communist regimes.
(2) prove that the atrocities committed by colonial regimes were more than those of communist regimes.
(3) prove that, ideologically, communism was much better than colonialism and Nazism.
(4) neutralise the arguments of Mr.Lindblad and to point out that the atrocities committed by colonial regimes were more than those of communist regimes.
(5) neutralise the arguments of Mr. Lindblad and to argue that one needs to go beyond and look at the motives of these regimes.
Ans.5

Q4. Why, according to the author, is Nazism closer to colonialism than it is to communism?
(1) Both colonialism and Nazism were examples of tyranny of one race over another.
(2) The genocides committed by the colonial and the Nazi regimes were of similar magnitude.
(3) Several ideas of the Nazi regime were directly imported from colonial regimes.
(4) Both colonialism and Nazism are based on the principles of imperialism.
(5) While communism was never limited to Europe, both the Nazis and the colonialists originated in Europe.
Ans.1

Q5. Which of the following cannot be inferred as a compelling reason for the silence of the Council of Europe on colonial atrocities?
(1) The Council of Europe being dominated by erstwhile colonialists.
(2) Generating support for condemning communist ideology.
(3) Unwillingness to antagonize allies by raking up an embarrassing past.
(4) Greater value seemingly placed on European lives.
(5) Portraying both communism and Nazism as ideologies to be condemned.
Ans.4

Books You Can Preffer TO Get Good Pecentile Elitmus

Wednesday, 18 July 2012

Books You Can Preffer TO Get Good Pecentile Elitmus:-

The best way to prepare is Just Buy Any book Having last year CAT Solved Papers and try to solve them.

if you still want to study in depth and you have lots of time then go for these books-

For Qunatitaive-How to Prepare For Quantitative Aptitude By Arun Sharma  

For Reasoning-How to Prepare for: Data Interpretation &: Logical Reasoning By Arun Sharma

For English-How To prepare Reading Comprehension and Grammer By Arun Sharma 

In These books you will find four sections:-
1st Level Questions
2nd Level Questions
3rd Level Questions
Review Questions
I advise you to just read the theory in starting of chapters and then try to solve review questions.All the other type of questions will be of no use if you got the concepts of a chapter.

guide to solve cryptic multiplication question

Monday, 9 July 2012


Guys in elitmus test you will be getting 3 questions(30 marks) on cryptic multiplication...damn sure!!!
This tutorial will be very helpful in solving those questions.I myself solved those 3 questions just by reading this tutorial.you won't find any help regarding this topic anywhere else so please read this tutorial.

WHAT IS CRYPTARITHMETIC?








Cryptarithmetic is the science and art of creating and solving cryptarithms.



A cryptarithm is a genre of mathematical puzzle in which the digits are replaced by letters of the alphabet or other symbols.


The invention of Cryptarithmetic has been ascribed to ancient China. This art was originally known as letter arithmetic or verbal arithmetic. In India, during the Middle Ages, were developed the arithmetical restorations or "skeletons" a type of cryptarithms in which most or all of the digits have been replaced by asterisks.


In 1864 the first cryptarithm appeared in the USA, in American Agriculturist.


The word cryptarithmetic ("cryptarithmie" in French) was introduced by M. Vatriquant, writing under the pseudonym Minos, in the May 1931 issue of Sphinx, a Belgian magazine of recreational mathematics published in French from 1931 to 1939.


A type of alphametic addition puzzle termed "doubly-true" was introduced in 1945 by Alan Wayne. It is made up of "number words" that, when read, also form a valid sum.


In 1955, J. A. H. Hunter coined the word alphametic to designate a cryptarithm whose letters form sensible words or phrases.



The world's best known alphametic puzzle is undoubtedly SEND + MORE = MONEY. It was created by H. E. Dudeney and first published in the July 1924 issue of Strand Magazine associated with the story of a kidnapper's ransom demand.


Modernization by introducing innovations such as computers and the Internet is making quite an impact on cryptarithmetic. If you are interested in knowing more about this revolution read the article Will cryptarithmetic survive innovation?








HOW TO SOLVE A PUZZLE





1. Preparation

Rewrite the problem, expanding the interlinear space to make room for
trial numbers that will be written under the letters.

For example, the puzzle SEND + MORE = MONEY, after solving, will appear like
this:

S E N D
            9 5 6 7
          + M O R E
            1 0 8 5
          ---------
          M O N E Y
          1 0 6 5 2





2. Remember cryptarithmetic conventions

  • Each letter or symbol represents only one digit throughout the
    problem;
  • When letters are replaced by their digits, the resultant arithmetical
    operation must be correct;
  • The numerical base, unless specifically stated, is 10;

  • Numbers must not begin with a zero;
  • There must be only one solution to the problem.

3. See subtractions as "upside-down" additions

Ease the analysis of subtractions by reading them as upside-down additions. Remember that you can check a subtraction by adding the difference and the subtracter to get the subtrahend: it's the same thing. This subtraction:

C O U N T
           - C O I N
           ---------
             S N U B
must be read from the bottom to the top and from the right to the left, as if it were this series of additions:
B + N = T + C1
        U + I = N + C2
        N + O = U + C3
        S + C = O + C4
C1, C2, C3 and C4 are the carry-overs of "0" or "1" that are to be added to the next column to the left.

4. Search for "0" and "9" in additions or subtractions

A good hint to find zero or 9 is to look for columns containing two or three identical letters.
Look at these additions:
* * * A           * * * B
  + * * * A         + * * * A
    -------           -------
    * * * A           * * * B
The columns A+A=A and B+A=B indicate that A=zero. In math this is called the "additive identity property of zero"; it says that you add "0" to anything and it doesn't change, therefore it stays the same. Now look at those same additions in the body of the cryptarithm:
* A * *           * B * *
  + * A * *         + * A * *
    -------           -------
    * A * *           * B * *
In these cases, we may have A=zero or A=9. It depends whether or not "carry 1" is received from the previous column. In other words, the "9" mimics zero every time it gets a carry-over of "1".

5. Search for "1" in additions or subtractions

Look for left hand digits. If single, they are probably "1".
Take the world's most famous cryptarithm:
S E N D
         + M O R E
         ---------
         M O N E Y
"M" can only equal 1, because it is the "carry 1" from the column S+M=O (+10). In other words, every time an addition of "n" digits gives a total of "n+1" digits, the left hand digit of the total must be "1". In this Madachy's subtraction problem, "C" stands for the digit "1":
C O U N T
         - C O I N
         ---------
           S N U B

6. Search for "1" in multiplications or divisions

In this multiplication:
M A D
             B E
         -------
           M A D
         R A E
         -------
         A M I D
The first partial product is E x MAD = MAD. Hence "E" must equal "1". In math jargon this is called the "identity" property of "1" in multiplication; you multiply anything by "1" and it doesn't change, therefore it remains the same.Look this division:
K T
            --------
     N E T / L I N K
             N E T
             -------
             K E K K
             K T E C
             -------
               K E Y
In the first subtraction, we see K x NET = NET. Then K=1.

7. Search for "1" and "6" in multiplications or divisions

Any number multiplied by "1" is the number itself. Also, any even number multiplied by "6" is the number itself:
4 x 1 = 4
         7 x 1 = 7
         2 x 6 = 2 (+10)
         8 x 6 = 8 (+40)         
Looking at right hand digits of multiplications and divisions, can help you spot digits "1" and "6". Those findings will show like these ones:
C B
                         ----------
     * * A        * * A / * * * * *
       B C                * * * C
    ------                ---------
   * * * C                  * * * *
 * * * B                    * * * B
 ---------                  -------
 * * * * *                    * * *
The logic is: if
C  x  * * A  =  * * * C 
   B  x  * * A  =  * * * B
then A=1 or A=6.

8. Search for "0" and "5" in multiplications or divisions

Any number multiplied by zero is zero. Also, any odd number multiplied by "5" is "5":
3 x 0 = 0
          6 x 0 = 0
          7 x 5 = 5 (+30)
          9 x 5 = 5 (+40)         
Looking at right hand digits of multiplications and divisions, can help you spot digits "0" and "5". Those findings will show like these ones:
C B
                        ----------
    * * A        * * A / * * * * *
      B C                * * * A
  -------                ---------
  * * * A                  * * * *
* * * A                    * * * A
---------                  -------
* * * * *                    * * *
The logic is: if
C  x  * * A  =  * * * A 
   B  x  * * A  =  * * * A
then A=0 or A=5

9. Match to make progress

Matching is the process of assigning potential values to a variable and testing whether they match the current state of the problem.
To see how this works, let's attack this long-hand division:
K M
           ----------
    A K A / D A D D Y
            D Y N A
            ---------
              A R M Y
              A R K A
              -------
                  R A

To facilitate the analysis, let's break it down to its basic components, i.e., 2 multiplications and 2 subtractions:
I.   K  x  A K A = D Y N A
  
  II.  M  x  A K A = A R K A
   
  III.        D A D D 
            - D Y N A
            ---------
                A R M  
 
  IV.         A R M Y
            - A R K A
            ---------
                  R A
From I and II we get:
K  x  * * A  =  * * * A
   M  x  * * A  =  * * * A
This pattern suggests A=0 or A=5. But a look at the divisor "A K A" reveals that A=0 is impossible, because leading letters cannot be zero. Hence A=5.Replacing all A's with "5", subtraction IV becomes:
5 R M Y
        - 5 R K 5
        ---------
              R 5
From column Y-5=5 we get Y=0. Replacing all Y's with zero, multiplication I will be:
K  x  5 K 5  = D 0 N 5
Now, matching can help us make some progress. Digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are still unidentified. Let's assign all these values to the variable K, one by one, and check which of them matches the above pattern. Tabulating all data, we would come to:
K  x  5K5  =  D0N5
           ----------------------
             1     515      515
             2     525     1050
             3     535     1605
             4     545     2180
             6     565     3390
SOLUTION --> 7     575     4025 <-- SOLUTION 
             8     585     4680
             9     595     5355
            ----------------------

You can see that K=7 is the only viable solution that matches the current pattern of multiplication I, yielding:
K  x  A K A  =  D Y N A
   7     5 7 5     4 0 2 5
This solution also identifies two other variables: D=4 and N=2.

10. When stuck, generate-and-test

Usually we start solving a cryptarithm by searching for 0, 1, and 9. Then if we are dealing with an easy problem there is enough material to proceed decoding the other digits until a solution is found.
This is the exception and not the rule. Most frequently after decoding 1 or 2 letters (and sometimes none) you get stuck. To make progress we must apply the generate-and-test method, which consists of the following procedures:
  • 1. List all digits still unidentified;
  • 2. Select a base variable (letter) to start generation;
  • 3. Do a cycle of generation and testing: from the list of still
    unidentified digits (procedure 1) get one and assign it to
    the base variable; eliminate it from the list; proceed guessing values for
    the other variables; test consistency; if not consistent, go to perform the
    next cycle (procedure 3); if consistent, stop: you have found the solution
    to the problem.
To demonstrate how this method works, let's tackle this J. A. H. Hunter's addition:
T A K E
                A
       +  C A K E
       ----------
          K A T E
The column AAA suggests A=0 or A=9. But column EAEE indicates that A+E=10, hence the only acceptable value for "A" is 9, with E=1. Replacing all "A's" with 9 and all "E's" with 1, we get
T 9 K 1
                9
       +  C 9 K 1
       ----------
          K 9 T 1
Letter repetition in columns KKT and TCK allows us to set up the following algebraic system of equations:
C1 + K + K = T + 10
       C3 + T + C = K         
Obviously C1=1 and C3=1. Solving the equation system we get K+C=8: not much, but we discovered a relationship between the values of "K" and "C" that will help us later. But now we are stuck! It's time to use the "generate-and-test" method. Procedure 1: digits 2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8 are still unidentified;
Procedure 2: we select "K" as the base variable;
CYCLE #1, procedure 3: column TCK shows that T+C=K and no carry, hence "K" must be a high valued digit. So we enter the list obtained through procedure 1 from the high side, assigning "8" to the base variable "K".
Knowing that K+C=8, if K=8 then C=0. But this is an unacceptable value for "C", because the addend "CAKE" would become "0981" and cryptarithmetic conventions say that no number can start with zero. So, we must close this cycle and begin cycle #2.
By now, the addition layout and the table summarizing current variable data would look like this:
T 9 8 1   CYCLE  A   E   K   C   T
         9   ========================
+  0 9 8 1    #1    9   1   8  [0]
----------
   8 9 T 1
Conflicting values for variables are noted within square brackets.CYCLE #2, procedure 3: assigning "7" to the letter "K" we get C=1 because K+C=8. This is an unacceptable value for "C" considering that we have already fixed E=1. Again we have to close the current cycle and go to cycle #3, with the setup and table showing:
T 9 7 1   CYCLE  A   E   K   C   T
         9   ========================
+  1 9 7 1    #1    9   1   8  [0]
----------    #2    9   1   7  [1]
   7 9 T 1
CYCLE #3, procedure 3: assigning "6" to the letter "K" we get C=2 because K+C=8. Testing these values for "K" and "C" in the column TCK, we get C3+T+2+=6 making T=3.Now, testing T in column KKT, we would obtain C1+K+K=T+10 or 1+6+6=T+10, making T=3. This is an acceptable value for T, confirming the previous value T=3 we had already found.
So, we have got the final solution to the problem, stopping the routine "generate-and-test".
The final layout and table would read
3 9 6 1   CYCLE  A   E   K   C   T
         9   ========================
+  2 9 6 1    #1    9   1   8  [0]
----------    #2    9   1   7  [1]
   6 9 3 1    #3    9   1   6   2   3    

EXAMPLES WORKED OUT IN DETAIL BY MASTER PUZZLISTS

1. Geoffrey Mott-Smith In "Mathematical Puzzles for Beginners & Enthusiasts"©


           S E N D
       +   M O R E
       ------------
         M O N E Y
We see at once that M in the total must be 1, since the total of the column SM cannot reach as high as 20. Now if M in this column is replaced by 1, how can we make this column total as much as 10 to provide the 1 carried over to the left below? Only by making S very large: 9 or 8. In either case the letter O must stand for zero: the summation of SM could produce only 10 or 11, but we cannot use 1 for letter O as we have already used it for M. If letter O is zero, then in column EO we cannot reach a total as high as 10, so that there will be no 1 to carry over from this column to SM. Hence S must positively be 9. Since the summation EO gives N, and letter O is zero, N must be 1 greater than E and the column NR must total over 10. To put it into an equation: E + 1 = N From the NR column we can derive the equation: N + R + (+ 1) = E + 10 We have to insert the expression (+ 1) because we don’t know yet whether 1 is carried over from column DE. But we do know that 1 has to be carried over from column NR to EO. Subtract the first equation from the second: R + (+1) = 9 We cannot let R equal 9, since we already have S equal to 9. Therefore we will have to make R equal to 8; hence we know that 1 has to be carried over from column DE. Column DE must total at least 12, since Y cannot be 1 or zero. What values can we give D and E to reach this total? We have already used 9 and 8 elsewhere. The only digits left that are high enough are 7, 6 and 7, 5. But remember that one of these has to be E, and N is 1 greater than E. Hence E must be 5, N must be 6, while D is 7. Then Y turns out to be 2, and the puzzle is completely solved. © Copyright Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1954, ISBN 0-486-20198-8.

2. Steven Kahan In "Take a Look at a Good Book"©


             E A T
       +   T H A T
       ------------
         A P P L E
Since every four-digit number is less than 10,000 and every three-digit number is less than 1,000, the sum of two such numbers is necessarily less than 11,000. This sum, though, is a five-digit number, hence is greater than 10,000. Consequently, A must be 1 and P must be 0. Further, we can conclude that T = 9. Otherwise, we would be adding a number less than 1,000 to one less than 9,000, leaving us short of the requisite total. The units column then produces E = 8 while generating a carryover of 1 into the tens column. Together with the previously found value of A, we learn from the tens column that L = 3. Finally, the hundreds column yields the equation E + H = P + 10, where the "10" is required to accommodate the needed carryover into the thousands column. When the values of E and P are substituted into this relationship, we get 8 + H = 10, from which it follows that H = 2. Therefore, the unique solution of the puzzle turns out to be 819 + 9219 = 10038. © Copyright Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., Amityville, New York, 1996, ISBN 0-89503-142-6.

3. J. A. H. Hunter In "Entertaining Mathematical Teasers and How to Solve Them"©


               N O
             G U N
         +     N O
         ----------
           H U N T
Obviously H = 1. From the NUNN column we must have "carry 1," so G = 9, U = zero. Since we have "carry" zero or 1 or 2 from the ONOT column, correspondingly we have N + U = 10 or 9 or 8. But duplication is not allowed, so N = 8 with "carry 2" from ONOT. Hence, O + O = T + 20 - 8 = T + 12. Testing for T = 2, 4 or 6, we find only T = 2 acceptable, O = 7. So we have 87 + 908 + 87 = 1082.   © Copyright Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1983, ISBN 0-486-24500-4.

4. Maxey Brooke In "150 Puzzles In Crypt-Arithmetic"©


             A B C
         x     D E
         ----------
             F E C
           D E C
         ----------
           H G B C 
In the second partial product we see D x A = D, hence A = 1. D x C and E x C both end in C, hence C = 5. D and E must be odd. Since both partial products have only three digits, neither can be 9. This leaves only 3 and 7. In the first partial product E x B is a number of two digits while in the second partial product D x B is a number of only one digit. Thus E is larger than D, so E = 7 and D = 3. Since D x B has only one digit, B must be 3 or less. The only two possibilities are 0 and 2. B cannot be zero because 7B is a two-digit number. Thus B = 2. By completing the multiplication, F = 8, E = 7, and G = 6. The answer is 125 x 37 = 4625 © Copyright Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1963.

5. Joseph S. Madachy In "Madachy´s Mathematical Recreations"©


       (B E) (B E) = M O B
 
Here a 3-digit number is the product of a 2-digit number multiplied by itself. Basic knowledge of the laws of multiplication will immediately force the conclusion that B cannot be greater than 3. For if B is 4, and the lowest possible value, 0, is assigned to E then BE = 40. However, (40)(40) = 1,600, a 4-digit number, and the product in the puzzle to be solved has but 3 digits. Convention demands that the initial letters or symbols of alphametics cannot be 0, so B is either 1, 2, or 3. Another convention demands that 2 different letters cannot be substituted for the same digit. That is, if B turns out to be 3, then no other letter in this alphametic could stand for 3. Attention can be directed to E since much can be deduced from the fact that (E)(E) ends in B. If E equals 0, 1, 5, or 6, then the product would be a number ending in 0, 1, 5, or 6, respectively. Since the product, MOB, does not end in E, these numbers for E are eliminated. 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 can also be eliminated as values for E, since they would yield the terminal digits of 4, 6, or 9 for MOB, and B has been established as being 1, 2, or 3. Only one value for E, 9, remains: (9) (9) = 81 so B = 1, and the alphametic is solved: (BE) (BE) = MOB is (19) (19) = 361. © Copyright Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1979, ISBN 0-486-23762-1.

6. C. R. Wylie Jr. In "101 Puzzles in Thought & Logic"©



             A L E
         x   R U M
         ----------
           W I N E
         W U W L
       E W W E
      -------------
       E R M P N E
 
To systematize our work we first write in a row the different letters appearing in the problem:

            A L E R U M W I N P
Over each letter we will write its numerical equivalent when we discover it. In the columns under the various letters we will record clues and tentative hypotheses, being careful to put all related inferences on the same horizontal line. In problems of this sort the digits 0 and 1 can often be found, or at least restricted to a very few possibilities, by simple inspection. For instance, 0 can never occur as the leftmost digit of an integer, and when any number is multiplied by zero the result consists exclusively of zeros. Moreover when any number is multiplied by 1 the result is that number itself. In the present problem, however, we can identify 0 by an even simpler observation. For in the second column from the right, N plus L equals N, with nothing carried over from the column on the right. Hence L must be zero. In our search for 1 we can eliminate R, U, and M at once, since none of these, as multipliers in the second row, reproduces A L E. Moreover E cannot be 1 since U times E does not yield a product ending in U. At present, however, we have no further clues as to whether 1 is A, I, N, P, or W. Now the partial product W U W L ends in L, which we know to be 0. Hence one of the two letters U and E must be 5. Looking at the units digits of the other partial products, we see that both M x E and R x E are numbers ending in E. A moment’s reflection (or a glance at a multiplication table) shows that E must therefore be 5. But if E is 5, then both R and M must be odd, since an even number multiplied by 5 would yield a product ending in 0, which is not the case in either the first or third partial product. Moreover, by similar reasoning it is clear that U is an even number. At this point it is convenient to return to our array and list under U the various possibilities, namely 2, 4, 6, and 8. Opposite each of these we record the corresponding value of W as read from the partial product W U W L, whose last two digits are now determined since the factor A L E is known to be _05. These values of W are easily seen to be 1, 2, 3, and 4. From an inspection of the second column from the left we can now deduce the corresponding possibilities for R. As we have already noted, R must be odd; hence its value is twice W plus 1 (the 1 being necessarily carried over from the column on the right). The possible values for R are then 3, 5, 7, and 9, and our array looks like this:

            0 5
          A L E R U M W I N P
                3 2   1
                5 4   2
                7 6   3
                9 8   4
Now in the third column from the left in the example the sum of the digits W, U, and W must be more than 9, since 1 had to be carried over from this column into the column on the left. The values in the first two rows of the array are too low for this, however, hence we can cross out both of these lines. A further consideration of the sum of the digits W, U, and W in the third column from the left, coupled with the fact that M is known to be odd, shows that in the third row of the array M must be 3 while in the fourth row it must be 7. This permits us to reject the third row of the array also, for it contains 3 for both M and W, which is impossible. The correct solution must therefore be the one contained in the fourth row. Hence R is 9, U is 8, M is 7, and W is 4. Substituting these into the problem it is a simple matter to determine that A is 6, I is 2, N is 3, and P is 1. This completes the solution.

Elitmus test pattern

Elitmus test pattern:


In this post i am goonna tell you about

elitmus test pattern

,

elitmus syllabus

and will be giving links to sample paper of elitmus,elitmus sample test papers,

papers of elitmus

.

What people say about elitmus:


People says "eLitmus is one of the toughest test which requires CAT level preparation".

What i say about elitmus:

i say its not that level tough!!you can crack it after some prepration and with good management of those 2 hours of test.yup this is a 2 hour test also its cat level test and you are required to manage that time very intelligently.trust me you can crack it very easily

Elitmus syllabus and elitmus test pattern:


In Question paper there will be 3 sections -
Section 1: Quant Section ( 20 Questions)

Important topics are:

Number System
work and time
permutation
geometry
Probability

you will get 14-16 questions from the above topic and 8-9 correct answers will fetch you to 90-96 percentile.So do not waste time in the prepration of other topic i think the topics are more than enough to help you get good elitmus percentile.
you can find

elitmus sample questions

for this section here:
elitmus question paper(quantitative questions)


Section 2: DI and Logical Reasoning ( 20 Questions)

DI- tabular data with conditions 5 questions
Arrangement ( visiting 3 villages each day, 5 villages... with lots of conditions) 3 questions
Coding/Decoding based on multiplication(Cryptic Multiplication for guide to solve this type of question click Cryptic Multiplication

This is the most difficult part of the Elitmus and u need to answer 5 to get some 90 percentile.If you study the guide to solve cryptic multiplication on my blog you will be able to correct those 3 questions.
you can find those sample questions

elitmus sample test papers(cryptic multiplication)

sample papers of elitmus(cryptic multiplication)



Section 3: Verbal ( 20 Questions)

3 RC 4 question in each
Paragraph formation(parajumbles)
Fill in the blank ( appropriate word)
Grammar

This is very easy part in

elitmus test

.i dont think you need to be strong at english to score good in this part.its the easiest and scoring part.

This was the syllabus cum elitmus test pattern

if you will prepare according to above pattern then you will be able to get good percentile in elitmus.I also shared elitmus sample test paper,sample paper o elitmus go and try to solve those papers.they are the section wise sample questions.
Elitmus ll definitely fetch u a good job if u can get a good percentile...lookin at your agg,your probability of getting a job is more...some people have been offered upto 10lpa...
Arun Sharma(How to Prepare for cat) would be sufficient for preparation....Try to Solve the Previous Paper of CAT Exam ,I am Sure that U Will Crack this Exam With Good Ph Score.
You are advised to give 40min to each part.

For any query just comment here....

About Elitmus

Sunday, 8 July 2012

What is eLitmus all about?

eLitmus is an innovative step towards streamlining entry-level recruitments. elitmus philosophy is to evaluate candidates across India and to provide a standard benchmark against which companies can compare them.



 What is pH test?

 pH test is a common aptitude test conducted all over India every month to evaluate fresher/entry level graduates on a standard benchmark. This score is used by all elitmus clients(companies) to shortlist candidates.



What is academic criterion for taking the pH test?

elitmus do not have any academic percentage cutoff for taking the pH test. You need to be either a graduate, final year or pre-final year student.



How long will my pH score be valid?


The pH score and percentile will be valid for a period of 2 years from the date of the test.



 How can I prepare for the pH test?

Go to www.elitmus.com/ph_test for test details.
You can refer any standard MBA entrance exam material/aptitude material while preparing.




 Can I take more than one pH test?
Yes, you can take up multiple pH tests. But every time you take, you have to pay the test fee. In case of multiple tests, typically your best performance will be considered while shortlisting.




How do I pay pH test fee? and How much?
The test fees is Rs. 699
There are three ways you can use to pay the test fee:
(1) Online -> If you have a credit card or online banking facility, you can pay the test fee online.
(2) Demand Draft ->You could send a demand draft drawn in favor of "eLitmus Evaluation Private Limited" and payable at Bangalore. You need to mention your Name and Registration Id on the backside of the DD.
(3) By Cash-> elitmus accept cash only in their Bangalore office. Candidates need to get their pH test registration id.





What is a percentile? How is it different from percent ?
Lot of candidates confuse percentile to percent. They are vastly different and a brief explanation is below.Let us assume, Ram has scored 80th percentile in pH test. It means 80% of pH test takers have scored less than him and 20% people more than him. Say there are 100000 test takers in an year. So 20% of candidates that is 20,000 in all are above Ram
 


 What is the cutoff percentile to get interview calls?
Companies typically shortlist students for interview calls on basis of the skill sets required for the job profile.
For every job, eLitmus’ AI engine assigns a rank to each student based on preferences and job profile set by the companies. So it is possible that you might be ranked higher than your friend in company “A” but in company “B” your friend is ranked higher despite having a lower score.
This could be because Company A is engaged in R&D and hence gives higher weightage to individuals who have solved questions related to following skills – out of box thinking, algorithmic thinking, simplification, relational thinking, encapsulation and abstraction. Company B might be engaged in providing software services work or QA work. And hence will give higher weightage to individuals who have solved questions related to following skills – methodical approach, eye for detail, perseverance, patience etc. 





How would companies contact me if I am short-listed?
Your status will be updated under the "Interviews" section in your elitmus account whenever a company shortlists/rejects/offers you. 




I am getting no calls from any company. Why is that?
eLitmus uses an artificial intelligent (AI) engine which uses extremely complex algorithms. The objective is to ensure candidates find jobs by being rejected in minimum number of places and that companies find talent which actually performs on the job.
The success of the AI engine can be gauged from the fact that for every 3 candidates who attend selection process of a company through eLitmus, one gets offered.
For every job, eLitmus’ AI engine assigns a rank to each student based on preferences and job profile set by the companies. So it is possible that you might be ranked higher than your friend in company “A” but in company “B” your friend is ranked higher despite having a lower score. This could be because Company A is engaged in R&D and hence gives higher weightage to individuals who have solved questions related to following skills – out of box thinking, algorithmic thinking, simplification, relational thinking, encapsulation and abstraction. Company B might be engaged in providing software services work or QA work. And hence will give higher weightage to individuals who have solved questions related to following skills – methodical approach, eye for detail, perseverance, patience etc.
Apart from these, some companies might have additional preference on basis of Geography and Academic credentials (for example: candidates from a particular state or candidates with above 65% throughout or candidates from certain colleges etc) 





Does eLitmus guarantee jobs?
eLitmus does not guarantee jobs. A good pH score can get you interview calls, beyond that it entirely depends on how you perform in the Interviews/technical rounds. 




How do I apply for a pH test?
To apply to a pH Test follow below steps:
--> Go to www.eLitmus.com and click on Sign Up, Register here by entering your email id and password.
--> Fill up your profile with your Personal and Academic details.
--> Activate your account by clicking on the link sent to your email id
--> Go to Tests->All Tests and apply for pH test.
-->Then go to 'Tests'->'My Tests' section to get your Registration Id. You can either pay online from here or send us DD or pay in cash in our Bangalore office. 





How long does it take to get the pH score?
The score is declared generally within 1 week of taking the pH test. You can check your scores by logging in to your eLitmus account under Tests-->Scores section. 




When and how will I receive my pH test scores?
pH scores are declared in your account at www.eLitmus.com within 1 week of your pH test date.You can go to Tests -->Score section to view the score.




To register for elitmus click here

To know about upcoming test click here 

To see the client-list(Companies) of elitmus click here  



 
 
 
 
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